Greenland

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Greenland
Greenland Map.png
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Map
Greenland Flag.png
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Flag
Capital Nuuk (Godthåb)
Language Greenlandic (Kalaallisut)
Currency Danish Krone (DKK)
Time zone (UTC+0 to −4)
Calling code +299

Greenland is a country within [Denmark].

Add any cruising recommendations. If not applicable delete this section.

Charts

Source
Danish Maritime Authority
[1] (Only in danish)
[2] (Only in danish)
[3]

Precautions In Using Navigational Charts In Greenland Waters

From: IMO NAV 55/INF.6 21 May 2009 INTRODUCTION

  1. Greenland covers a large Arctic area (2,127,600 km2) and is navigationally considered a remote area. The distances between the settlements in Greenland are large, and the consequences of an accident may be greater in Greenland compared to more densely navigated waters, where search and rescuefacilities are seldom far away. In addition to this, an accident could have a serious impact on the vulnerable Arctic environment.
  2. Navigation in Greenland waters differs significantly from navigation in other (non-Arctic)waters. In general, it is difficult for mariners who are not familiar with the conditions to navigate around Greenland. Furthermore, instruments such as magnetic compasses may be unusable and gyrocompasses may be unreliable.
  3. Due to the remote Arctic location an d the historically low density of maritime traffic, the assistance offered to mariners in the form of charts within the scope of relevant IHO standards and other facilities has not reached the same level in Greenland. Furthermore, floating markings are not an option due to ice conditions and great depths. # In addition, systematic and completely covering hydrographical surveys have not been carried out in many areas along the coasts of Greenland due to the wide extent of the sea area and the Greenland archipelago. In other words, depth conditions will be unknown or depth data will be of poor quality in large areas. For mariners it is essential to understand the limitations in the source material providing the basis for the production of paper charts and, consequently, the information given in the paper charts must be interpreted with caution. # Modern navigation is based on Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) as, e.g., GPS. The continuous marking of the ship´s position on an ENC in the ECDIS system is made by means of GNSS. Positions obtained from satellite navigation systems refer to World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) datum.
  4. In addition, systematic and completely covering hydrographical surveys have not been carried out in many areas along the coasts of Greenland due to the wide extent of the sea area and the Greenland archipelago. In other words, depth conditions will be unknown or depth data will be of poor quality in large areas. For mariners it is essential to understand the limitations in the source material providing the basis for the production of paper charts and, consequently, the information given in the paper charts must be interpreted with caution.
  5. Modern navigation is based on Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) as, e.g., GPS. The continuous marking of the ship´s position on an ENC in the ECDIS system is made by means of GNSS. Positions obtained from satellite navigation systems refer to World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) datum.
  6. The use of ECDIS in Greenland waters requires the availability of ENCs which refer to WGS 84 datum and are produced with a correct positioning of topography, including coastline, and hydrography in the geographic net. At present, ENCs are not available for Greenland coastal navigation, except for a very few exceptions.
  7. In Greenland coastal waters, the inaccuracies in the present paper charts could endanger safety of navigation if the navigator relies on satellite based electronic navigation instead of the use of terrestrial navigation.
  8. At present, the paper charts available for Greenland waters Are not compatible with GNSS navigation, as, e.g., GPS, for several reasons.
  9. INCORRECT POSITIONING OF TOPOGRAPHY AND HYDROGRAPHY IN THE GEOGRAPHIC NET. A MAJOR DIFFICULTY WITH THE PAPER CHARTS AVAILABLE FOR GREENLAND WATERS IS THE INCORRECT POSITIONING OF THE COASTLINE IN THE GEOGRAPHIC NET IN THE CHARTS. AT THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN COASTLINES WHERE THE UNCERTAINTY IS MOST DISTINCT, THE COASTLINE MAY BE POSITIONED SEVERAL NAUTICAL MILES INCORRECT. IN OTHER PARTS OF GREENLAND, THE UNCERTAINTY MAY BE LESS, BUT STILL AT A SUBSTANTIVE LEVEL WHEN COMPARING WITH THE ACCURATE POSITION ACHIEVABLE FROM A GNSS RECEIVER. IN GENERAL, CHARTS OF THE NORTHERN AND EASTERN GREENLAND COASTLINES ARE MISPLACED BY 0-5,000 METRES, AND IN SOME AREAS OF THE EXTREME NORTHEAST GREENLAND EVEN MORE. CHARTS OF THE WEST GREENLAND COASTLINES ARE MISPLACED BY 0-1,000 METRES.
  10. In the paper charts covering the Greenland east coast, the following note is found: The difference between satellite-derived positions and positions on this chart cannot be determined; mariners are warned that these differences MAY BE SIGNIFICANT TO NAVIGATION and are therefore advised to use alternative sources of positional information, particularly when closing the shore or navigating in the vicinity of dangers.
  11. Conclusion: In the paper charts available for Greenland waters, the positioning of the information in the charts (i.e. topography, including coastline, and hydrography, etc.) is inaccurate, which means that ships cannot navigate safely by means of satellite navigation on the basis of the present paper charts.
  12. IT IS IMPORTANT TO EMPHASIZE THAT, DESPITE THE INACCURACIES OF THE PAPER CHARTS; IT IS POSSIBLE FOR SHIPS TO NAVIGATE IN COASTAL AREAS IF THEY USE THEIR RADAR EQUIPMENT AS THE PRIMARY POSITIONING INSTRUMENT AND RELY ON TERRESTRIAL NAVIGATION METHODS WHEN NAVIGATING IN GREENLAND WATERS.
  13. Chart datum. The paper charts available for west Greenland waters are produced in the geographical datum "Qornoq 1927". On each paper chart a note has been inserted giving the correction to be used if positions are obtained from a satellite navigation system, such as GPS, which refers to WGS 84 datum. This could state, e.g., Positions obtained from satellite navigation systems refer to WGS 84 datum; they should be moved 0.08 minutes northward and 0.25 minutes westward to agree with the chart.
  14. For paper charts covering northern and eastern Greenland waters, the source material for chart datum may be unknown.
  15. It is important to notice that the correction may vary from one chart to another and the correction is only to be used if the GNSS receiver has not been pre-selected to the Qornoq 1927 datum.
  16. The use of the geodetic datum Qornoq 1927 instead of the WGS 84 may have the following effect for Automatic Identification System (AIS) which relays the ship's position signal from a GNSS receiver. It can get this information in two ways: From an external or a built-in receiver. AIS with an internal receiver transmits the ship's position in WGS 84 coordinates. AIS with an external receiver can transmit the ship's position in WGS 84 or in Qornoq 1927. This can give rise to misunderstandings and misinterpretations when AIS is used for anti-collision purposes
  17. CONCLUSION: GNSS SHOULD BE USED ONLY AS A SECONDARY POSITIONING INSTRUMENT, AND IF USED AS SUCH, MARINERS MUST BE WARE OF THE NECESSARY CORRECTION BETWEEN THE REFERENCE CHART DATUM IN THE PAPER CHARTS AND THE INFORMATION RECEIVED FROM GNSS.
  18. Hydrographic survey. IHO Special Publication No. 55 Third Edition (2004) on status of hydrographic surveying and nautical charting worldwide, latest update of 8 May 2009, states the following for Greenland: The coastline of Greenland is very complex and the total sea area of the EEZ is ca. 2,000,000 square kilometres. Due to permanent ice cover, the limit for navigable waters has been set to 75 degrees northern latitude. The east coast is sparsely populated and only surveyed near populated areas. A prioritised programme is in force to resurvey navigable routes to and between populated areas on the west coast of Greenland, to modern standards.
  19. The lack of survey data or its poor quality is reflected in the charts by, e.g., waters where depths are given only by passages of reconnaissance lines or even as white unsurveyed areas in the chart. Attention is also drawn to the fact that source diagrams are lacking in many of the paper charts available for Greenland waters. The basic lack of IHO compatible survey data for chart production should make ships keep an additional safety distance when passing underwater rocks and obstructions.

In summary, at present caution must be taken in consideration that:

- official ENCs are not available for coastal navigation;

- only paper charts are available for coastal navigation, but these are not compatible with GNSS navigation;

- paper charts have incorrect positioning of coastlines in the geographic net;

- chart datum "Qornoq 1927" is used for some areas, mostly at west Greenland, instead of WGS 84 datum;

- for other areas, mostly north and east Greenland, the source material for chart datum may be unknown and the accuracy may be affected by the age and quality; and

- hydrographic surveys may be sporadic and areas may be considered as unexplored.

In some areas, depths are only given by sounding tracks from passages of a reconnaissance nature.

Planning a voyage to Greenland, the following IMO guidelines and resolutions should be consulted further in addition to the ordinary use of paper charts and nautical information:

• SN.1/Circ.207/Rev.1 on Differences between RCDS and ECDIS; • SN/Circ.213 on Guidance on chart datums and the accuracy of positions on charts; • SN.1/Circ.255 on Additional guidance on chart datums and the accuracy of positions on charts; • SN.1/Circ.276 on Transitioning from paper chart to ECDIS navigation; • Resolution A.893(21) on Guidelines for voyage planning; • Resolution A.999(25) on Guidelines on voyage planning for passenger ships operating in remote areas; and • MSC/Circ.1056 on Guidelines for ships operating in Arctic ice-covered waters.

Weather

The world's largest island is 2.2 million square kilometers and spans over nearly 24 latitudes from north to south. 80 percent is covered by a massive, continuous and slightly convex ice sheet, the so-called inland ice.

The remaining fifth of the island is home to the country's flora and fauna, and this is where people live - on the brink of the ice age, so to speak - primarily in coastal areas that grant access to open water.

It is, however, the country's northern location and the surrounding cold and icy sea that all contribute to the cold climate.

Climate in Greenland varies greatly, but since it is primarily arctic, no forest can exist in the area.

Especially the northern part of the island is linked closely to the North American continent only separated by a narrow and icy sea.

Southern Greenland, on the other hand, is situated between the continent to the west and the Atlantic Ocean to the east.

Temperature

Summer temperatures at both the west and east coast of Greenland differs only a few degrees when moving from north to south - quite astonishing when considering the total distance of approx. 2,600 km. The reason for this is the midnight sun of northern Greenland in summer. On the other hand, winter darkness and the absence of warm sea currents mean that the length of winter differs considerably from north to south.

There are also significant differences in temperatures from the outer coasts to the fjords in inner coastal areas. In summer, drift ice and cold water along the coast result in warmer fjords. In winter, the situation is reversed. The position close to open sea means that coastal areas are warmer.

The Foehn wind can disturb this picture in winter. Foehn winds are very common in Greenland. In winter, the warm and dry winds can cause temperatures to rise by 30°C in a relatively short time causing snow and ice to melt.

The warmest temperature recorded in Greenland since 1958 was 25.9°C in July 2013 in Manitsoq at the West Greenland coast. The coldest place in Greenland is the ice cap where temperatures are likely to fall below -70°C. In the 1950’s, a British research station measured -70°C and a DMI station measured below -63°C at Summit in the middle of the ice cap.

Apart from the ice cap, the coldest stations in Greenland are Hall Land and Cape Morris Jesup on the north coast with average mean temperatures of -19.6°C and -18°C, respectively. In January 1989, the lowest measured temperature at Hall Land was -52.1°C - possibly even lower as this type of station does not measure absolute minimum temperatures.

Over the past 130 years, temperatures in Greenland have shown a slight upward trend. Seen in a shorter time perspective, and apart from the warm decades of the 1930’s and 1940’s, temperatures have been decreasing. This trend is primarily observed on the west coast that not until recent years started showing an increasing trend.

On the east coast, a rising trend has been seen since the mid 1970’s. Current temperature level is now among the highest in the series. 2001-2010 was the warmest decade among all series. In 2010, record high annual temperatures were observed several places across Greenland.

In combined temperature series from southwest Greenland from the period 1784-2005, the 1930’s and 1940’s were the warmest decades and the 1810’s the coldest - not least due to unidentified large volcanic eruptions in 1809 and the Tambora eruption in 1815.

Source: Danish meteorological institute

Passages

List popular passages/routes, timing, etc.

Islands

List islands and island groups belonging to this country. If there is more then 2 paragraphs for a given island, create a dedicated page for it (Island Template and/or Island Group Template).

Communication

Information on the Coast Radio Station service in Greenland

TELE Greenland welcomes you into Greenland waters. We operate the Coast Radio Station service. It is provided from Aasiaat Radio. We would like to draw your attention to the service provided.

Aasiaat Radio’s primary function are monitoring of the international emergency frequencies, informing the SAR authorities of requests for assistance and handle the communication between ships in distress and the SAR authorities.

In addition Aasiaat Radio broadcast MSI such as information regarding warning of storm, gale or icing and Navigational Warnings. Aasiaat Radio also handles the position systems GREENPOS and COASTAL CONTOL, and communicates medical advices. Information on ice conditions and maritime weather forecasts are available on request.

Aasiaat Radio covers the waters on the west coast of Greenland up to app. 75 North on VHF, MF and HF from at wide spread net of remote controlled stations. Furthermore Aasiaat Radio covers the waters on the east coast of Greenland on VHF and MF operated by remote controlled stations placed in the vicinity of Tasiilaq.

Distress

Aasiaat Radio listens for distress calls on channel 16 received on one of the remote controlled position as mentioned in the summary below. Aasiaat Radio does not operate DSC on VHF.

Aasiaat Radio operates MF distress on DSC 2187,5 kHz as mentioned in the summary below. After receiving a distress call, the communication will be held on the emergency channel 2182 kHz.

Aasiaat Radio does not operate distress frequencies in the HF (short wave) range.

MSI

Warnings of storm, gale or icing are announced on 2182 kHz and channel 16 before broadcasted on the working frequencies including HF in English, Greenlandic and Danish at 06.05, 11.05, 16.05 and 21.05 local time. The weather warning areas are listed in the information from the Danish Meteorological Institute.

Warnings received outside the above mentioned fixed times are announced on MF DSC, the MF emergency channel and channel 16 before broadcasted on the working frequencies HF included. Such warnings are repeated following the silence period at least 30 minutes later.

Navigational warnings are transmitted by the Coast Radio Stations from the transmitters in the affected area following the first silence period after received from MRCC Groennedal. The transmissions are announced on MF DSC, the MF emergency channel 2182 kHz and channel 16.

Repetition of navigational warnings are transmitted for 48 hours following the traffic list at UTC time 00.35 – 03.35 – 06.35 etc.

Position Systems

The use of the position systems GREENPOS and COASTAL CONTOL are mandatory. Aasiaat Radio operates the systems free of charge. Descriptions of the systems are specified in the information from MRCC Nuuk. You are welcome to ask Aasiaat Radio for further information.

Medical advice

In case of need for medical advice please call Aasiaat Radio. You will free of charge be connect to the primary hospital of Greenland.

Maritime weather forecast and ice information

For information on maritime weather and ice conditions forecast please contact Aasiaat Radio. There You will be provided with updated information.

Frequency list for Aasiaat Radio VHF
  • East Coast
CH25 Pingels Fjeld
CH26 Sermiligaaq
CH27 Kap Tycho Brahe
  • West Coast
CH01 Ikerasassuaq
CH03 Top 775
CH04 Nanortalik
CH28 Tretopfjeld
CH02 – 25 Qaqortoq
CH24 Narsaq
CH23 Narsarsuaq
CH26 Simiutaq
CH27 Arsuk
CH23 Paamiut
CH28 Kangaarsuk
CH03 Qingaaq
CH26 Telegraføen
CH25 Maniitsoq
CH24 Kangaamiut
CH26 Dye One
CH01 Sisimiut
CH28 Rifkol
CH27 Aasiaat
CH23 Lyngmarksfjeld
CH25 Ilulissat
CH24 Pingo
CH02 Niaqornaq
CH03 Uummannaq
CH63 Uviq
CH04 Sandersons Hope
CH60 Tinu

All positions are equipped with Channel 16.

MF
  • East Coast
2250 kHz Tasiilaq
  • West Coast
2265 kHz Ikerasassuaq
2129 kHz Qaqortoq
2225 kHz Paamiut
2116 kHz Nuuk
2400 kHz Maniitsoq
3125 kHz Sisimiut
2304 kHz Qeqertarsuaq
3280 kHz Uummannaq
3276 kHz Upernavik

Additional information

Aasiaat Radio are established to assist you. Give us a call on a VHF working channel or on channel 16.

On MF please call on 2045 kHz and state, where you are listening.

On HF please see List of Coast Stations for available frequencies.

We will do our very best to assist – also with telephone calls.

Aasiaat Radio
E-mail
Phone: +299 130 000
Phone: +299 386 993
Fax: +299 892 777

Yours sincerely

Carl Johan Simony
Manager Coastal Radio Services

Also see World Cruiser's Nets.

Navigation

Navigation.gl is a portal for use by mariners who are not familiar with navigation in arctic waters, especially the waters surrounding Greenland. Mariners intending to navigate in the waters surrounding Greenland can use the portal to obtain an overview of the websites of relevant authorities and institutions that provide information about safe navigation in these waters.

The navigation.gl portal is developed in collaboration between Danish and Greenland authorities. The portal primarily features links to the websites of the Danish Maritime Authority, The Danish Geodata Agency and the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI).

Navigational Planning

Entrance

Arrival

Mandatory Ship Reporting Systems The complete IMO circular on the GREENPOS/COASTAL CONTROL (IMO SN/Circ. 221 of 29 May 2002) may be found here: http://www.imo.org/blast/blastDataHelper.asp?data_id=5395&filename=221.pdf

In order to be able to fulfil your obligations according to this mandatory ship reporting system, it is recommended that ship owners make sure, that the ships are equipped with adequate communication facilities when navigation north of latitude 76°N, for example a satellite telephone that has reliable coverage north of 76°N.

INFORMATION ABOUT THE GREENPOS SYSTEM:

1. THERE ARE TWO MANDOTORY SHIP CONTROL SYSTEMS IN GREENLAND. ONE IS THE GREENPOS SYSTEM MONITORED BY MRCC GROENNEDAL. THE SECOND IS THE COASTAL CONTROL SYSTEM MONITORED BY THE GREENLAND COAST RADIO STATIONS. AS OF DECEMBER 1 ST. 2002 THE SYSTEMS BECAME MANDATORY. THE GREENPOS SYSTEM APPLIES TO ALL SHIPS ON VOYAGE TO AND FROM GREENLANDIC WATERS AND INSIDE THE GREENLANDIC CONTINENTAL SHELF OR EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE. THE SHIPS ARE TO REPORT THEIR POSITION, COURSE, SPEED AND ACTUAL WEATHER INFORMATION EVERY 6TH HOUR.

2. WHEN JOINING THE SYSTEM, THE SHIP MUST SEND A SAILINGPLAN (SP) WITH THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION:

GREENPOS – SP

A. SHIP NAME/CALL SIGN

B. DATE AND TIME (151632UTC)

C. PRESENT POSITION

E. COURSE

F. SPEED

I. DESTINATION AND ESTIMATED TIME OFF ARRIVAL

L. ROUTE

S. ACTUAL WEATHER AND ICE INFORMATION

X. PERSONS ONBOARD (POB XX)

AFTER JOINING THE SYSTEM THE SHIP MUST SEND A POSITION REPORT (PR) EVERY 6TH HOUR (AT 0000, 0600, 1200, 1800 UTC). THE PR INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION:

GREENPOS – PR

A. SHIP NAME/CALL SIGN

B. DATE AND TIME

C. PRESENT POSITION

E. COURSE

F. SPEED

S. ACTUAL WEATHER AND ICE INFORMATIONS

WHEN THE SHIP LEAVES THE REPORTING AREA (GREENLAND EEZ) OR UPON ARRIVAL AT THE GREENLANDIC DESTINATION THE SHIP MUST SEND A FINAL REPORT (FR) INCLUDING THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION:

GREENPOS – FR

A. SHIPS NAME/CALL SIGN

B. DATE AND TIME GROUP

C. PRESENT POSITION

S. ACTUAL WEATHER AND ICE INFORMATIONS

IF THE SHIP CHANGES DESTINATION OR ALTER ITS ROUTE, THE SHIP MUST SEND A DEVIATION REPORT (DR) INCLUDING THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION:

GREENPOS – DR

A. SHIPS NAME/CALL SIGN

B. DATE AND TIME

C. PRESENT POSITION

L. SHORT DESCRIPTION OF NEW ROUTE.


5. AS THE SYSTEM IS A PART OF THE SEARCH AND RESCUE ASSISTANCE SYSTEM IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE SHIP REPORTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ABOVE. IF THE SHIP IS MORE THAN 30 MINUTES OVERDUE WITH ITS REPORT, MRCC NUUK IS OBLIGED TO INVESTIGATE THE SHIPS MISSING REPORT. IF MRCC NUUK IS UNABLE TO ESTABLISH CONTACT WITH THE SHIP, MRCC NUUK WILL INITIATE A SEARCH AND RESCUE MISSION.


6. ALL REPORTS ARE TO BE SENT DIRECTLY TO MRCC NUUK EITHER VIA AASIAAT COAST RADIO STATION, INMARSAT MAIL, FAX, VOICE ECT:


MRCC NUUK NUMBERS: INMARSAT C: 433 116 710 EMAIL: ako-commcen@mil.dk PHONE: +299 364023 FAX: +299 364099


THE COASTAL CONTROL SYSTEM APPLIES

TO ALL SHIPS GREATER THAN 20 BT ON VOYAGE TO AND FROM GREENLAND PORTS AND PLACES OF CALL. THE SHIPS ARE TO REPORT THEIR POSITION, COURSE, SPEED AND PERSONS ONBOARD AT LEAST EVERY 24TH HOUR. WHEN JOINING THE SYSTEM, THE SHIP MUST SEND A SAILING PLAN (SP) WITH THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION:

TO: COASTAL CONTROL

SP

A. SHIPS NAME AND CALL SIGN

B. DATE AND TIME GROUP UTC (LIKE 151630Z)

D. PRESENT POSITION OR PORT

I. DESTINATION AND DATE AND TIME OF ARRIVAL

L. ROUTE

X. NUMBER OF PERSONS ON BOARD

AFTER JOINING THE SYSTEM, THE SHIP MUST SEND POSITION REPORTS (PR) EVERY 24TH HOUR. THE POSITION REPORT INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION:

TO: COASTAL CONTROL

PR

A. SHIPS NAME AND CALL SIGN

B. DATE AND TIME GROUP UTC

D. POSITION INDICATED AS GEOGRAFICAL NAME OR PLACE

E. COURSE

F. SPEED

DEVIATION REPORT MUST BE SENT IF THERE ARE CHANGES TO INFORMATION GIVEN IN SAILING PLAN (SP). A DEVIATION REPORT SHALL ALSO BE SENT IF THE PREVIOUS GIVEN TIME OF ARRIVAL IS OVERDUE WITH MORE THAN ONE HOUR:

TO: COASTAL CONTROL

DR

A. SHIPS NAME AND CALL SIGN

B. DATE AND TIME GROUP UTC

C. POSITION INDICATED AS GEOGRAFICAL NAME OR PLACE

L. INTENTIONS OR CAUSE OF DEVIATION

FINAL REPORTS (FR) MUST BE SENT IMMEDIATELY UPON ARRIVAL:

TO: COASTAL CONTROL

FR

A. SHIPS NAME AND CALL SIGN

B. DATE AND TIME GROUP UTC

D. POSITION INDICATED AS GEOGRAFICAL NAME OR PLACE


AS THE SYSTEM IS A PART OF THE SEARCH AND RESCUE ASSISTANT SYSTEM IT IS IMPORTANT THAT THE SHIP REPORTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE ABOVE. IF THE SHIP IS MORE THAN 30 MINUTES OVERDUE WITH ITS REPORT, THE COASTAL RADIO STATION IS OBLIGED TO INVESTIGATE THE SHIPS MISSING REPORT. IF THE COASTAL RADIO STATION IS UNABLE TO ESTABLISH CONTACT WITH THE SHIP, A SEARCH AND RESCUE MISSION WILL BE INITIATED VIA THE POLICE OR MRCC NUUK. ALL REPORTS IN THE COASTAL CONTROL SYSTEM ARE TO BE SENT DIRECTLY TO THE COASTAL RADIO STATION EITHER VIA RADIO, INMARSAT MAIL, FAX, VOICE ECT.

ADDRESSES:

AASIAAT RADIO

MMSI: 003313000

EMAIL: OYR@TELEPOST.GL

PHONE: +299 893 126

PHONE: +299 130 000

FAX: +299 892 777

Source: Danish Maritime Authority

Departure

Same as Arrival

Customs and Immigration

Customs

Details?

Immigration

Details?

Fees and Charges

Restrictions

Health and Security

Health

Submit any health warnings/information. Remove any of these sections do not apply to this particular country.

Security

Details?

Berthing

Ports

List ports and harbors. If there is more then 2 paragraphs for a given port, create a dedicated page for it (Port/Stop Template).

Marinas & Yacht Clubs

Use this section only if there are few marinas not covered in pages under Ports and Islands above. Remove if not applicable.

Anchorages

List anchorages except the ones covered under Offshore Islands below. If there is more then 2 paragraphs for a given anchorage, create a dedicated page for it (Port/Stop Template).


Amenities

Also see each port above.

Facilities
Water ?
Electricity ?
Toilets ?
Showers ?
Laundry ?
Garbage ?
Supplies
Fuel ?
Bottled gas ?
Chandlers ?
Services
Repairs ?
Internet In internet cafés
Mobile connectivity ?
Vehicle rentals ?

Provisioning

Give the names and locations of supermarkets, grocery stores, bakeries, etc..

Store name1/wiki/Greenland#.3Cspan_style.3D.22color:magenta_.22.3EStore_name1.3C.2Fspan.3EProvisions icon Store name1 [[Greenland#Store name1|Store name1]] DD.dddDD.ddd description, location, tel. +XX XXXX XXXXX.

Store name2/wiki/Greenland#.3Cspan_style.3D.22color:magenta_.22.3EStore_name2.3C.2Fspan.3EProvisions icon Store name2 [[Greenland#Store name2|Store name2]] DD.dddDD.ddd description, location, tel. +XX XXXX XXXXX.

Eating out

Give the name of recommended restaurant, tavernas, pastry stores, etc.)

  • Location1
Name/wiki/Greenland#.27.27.3Cspan_style.3D.22color:magenta_.22.3EName.3C.2Fspan.3E.27.27Eatingout icon Name [[Greenland#Name|Name]] DD.dddDD.ddd description, tel. +XX XXXX XXXXX.
  • Location2
Name/wiki/Greenland#.27.27.3Cspan_style.3D.22color:magenta_.22.3EName.3C.2Fspan.3E.27.27Eatingout icon Name [[Greenland#Name|Name]] DD.dddDD.ddd description, tel. +XX XXXX XXXXX.

Transportation

List transportation (local and/or international.)

Tourism

History

The first people to set foot in Greenland arrived around 4-5000 years ago from the North American continent via Canada when the sea froze in the narrow strait at Thule in northern Greenland. No less than six different Inuit cultures have immigrated in several waves. Greenland's population today is descended from the last immigration, the Thule culture, which arrived here in around the 9th century AD.

The Norse Settlers And The Viking Period In Greenland

This final Inuit immigration took place at around the same time as the arrival in Greenland of the Norse settlers and Erik the Red, which was in 982 AD. This is described in detail in the Icelandic sagas. The Norse population disappeared from Greenland in around 1500 AD for reasons that have never been fully explained - although countless well-founded theories about their disappearance still flourish today. Many of the Norse settlers' ruins are still visible on plains and mountainsides in South Greenland and at Nuuk. They are therefore popular destinations that attract tourists wishing to gain an insight into an exciting culture from the Viking period.

The Encounter With Danes, Norwegians And Whalers

Following the disappearance of the Norse population, expeditions from England and Norway came to Greenland throughout the 16th and 17th centuries and from the 17th and 18th centuries it was primarily the European whalers who came into contact with the Inuits. This resulted in extensive trade, and the Inuits were particularly taken with the Europeans' small glass beads, which today are used in the national costume. The missionary Hans Egede from the joint kingdom of Denmark-Norway arrived in what is today known as Nuuk in 1721 in his search for the Norse settlers. He never found them, but instead converted the Inuits to the Christian faith. The Inuits today are Lutheran evangelists.

Tools From The Past Until The Present Day

The hardy Inuit cultures have survived in Greenland by inventing and developing essential tools and implements that have been adapted and refined over generations, and which are in fact still in use today. This applies to, for example, the qajaq - the Greenlandic sea kayak - which is perhaps the best symbol of an Arctic culture that has lived on, by and from the sea and its resources. The ulo, which is a special, curved knife used by the women to cut up the prey the men brought home from the seal hunt, is also worthy of mention.

From Dogsled To Snowmobile

Like the qajaq and the ulo, the dogsled is also a tool from the past, although it is probably the traditional appliance that is most used in today's modern society. Indeed, Greenland has become a modern society, where snowmobiles have in some cases replaced the sleds and where mobile phones and the Internet have become common means of communication for young and old alike. However, some things never disappear from even the most modern cultures, and the traditional myths and legends still hold a key place in the Greenlandic consciousness.

Source: Greenland history

Places to Visit

List places of interest, tours, etc.

Friends

Contact details of "Cruiser's Friends" that can be contacted for local information or assistance.

Forums

List links to discussion threads on partnering forums. (see link for requirements)

Links

References

Books, Guides, etc. Use the Reference template or not at your discretion. For example:

{{Reference|Rod Heikel|Greek Waters Pilot Imray||Laurie and Wilson, Cambridgeshire|9780852889718}}, expands to
Rod Heikell, Greek Waters Pilot Imray, Laurie and Wilson, Cambridgeshire, ISBN 9780852889718
  • Author, Title, Publisher, ISBN ISBN number
  • Author, Title, Publisher, ISBN ISBN number

See also Denmark.

Comments

We welcome users' contributions to the Wiki. Please click on Comments to view other users' comments, add your own personal experiences or recommend any changes to this page following your visit.

Verified by

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Names: Lighthouse, Haiqu


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